Main Number Handling – Response Groups Pt 4 – Workflow Details

In the last post, we covered the essentials that you need to get a Workflow (and your Response Group) up and running. In this post, we’ll cover the full seven steps to configure a Response Group.

Before we begin, a caution:

The Response Group Configuration Tool can hiccup every once in a while, especially if you are creating a number of Response Groups at the same time. I recommend that you  configure the bare minimum of SIP Address, Display Name, and Queue, then hit save.  Come back and edit the Workflow after that.

If you need to step away from the tool mid-build, or have configured some particularly cool and detailed settings, hit save often.

And lastly, you must have already defined the Queue that you will assign to handle calls. Saving after you configure the SIP Address, Display Name, and Queue will save you from getting to the end of the page, and doing a facepalm because you can’t save your Workflow config without a Queue to assign.


Step 1: Activate and Name the Workflow

Let’s break this one down into three areas.

The core of the Workflow


We covered SIP Address and Display name in the previous post. Telephone number is straightforward. Note the formatting here, they’ve included the tel: for you, unlike for user LineURIs. Display number should be the Telephone number, but formatted to however local users are used to seeing the number. Description is any text that you wish, and note that this text is published on the Contact Card for the Workflow object.

Workflow objects aren’t much different from user objects in Skype for Business from a contact list perspective. They are searchable, clickable, have contact cards, and you can add them to your contact list and favorite them.

Workflow Management



You have a managed or unmanaged Workflow. Setting a workflow to managed allows you to delegate the administration of the entire Response Group – Workflow, Queue, and Group – to one of more Skype for Business users. This is awesome, because it means that IT is no longer required to make every little tweak to the Response Group once it’s set up.

I think this is a terrible description of the function, because it affects Workflows, Queues and Groups.

Once you’ve delegated management of a Response Group, the manager can use the Skype for Business Control Panel and the Response Group Administrator Tool to manage things like Workflow hours, Queues and Groups, messages, schedules and IVR workflows – all the stuff that IT guys don’t want to do. They cannot create or delete workflows, or change the SIP address and telephone number – all the stuff that would break things that IT would then have to fix.

Note that when Response Group is set to Managed, the Queues and Groups cannot be shared with any other Response Group, even if they have the same manager. This makes a lot of sense, if one manager has created Queues for their business unit, another business unit manager shouldn’t be able to use or modify that Queue for their own purposes. You can assign multiple managers to a Response Group, if you need to.

The default is Unmanaged, which means that only members of the CSResponseGroupAdministrator group can create or edit Response Groups. It’s probably a bad idea to simply add a user like the manager of your account department to this group, it grants them too many permissions and then break all your stuff.

Activation, Federation, and Anonymity


Activation is straight-forward. Deactivating the Workflow means your Response Group isn’t going to take calls, but the number and configuration remain assigned. I use this often when I need to preconfigure a Response Group, but don’t want calls coming in to agents quite yet.

Turning Federation on means that users in Federated organizations can place a Skype call to the Response Group instead of needing to call via the PSTN. Since you can always call via the PSTN, turning this off offers no security benefit. If you do leave it on, make sure you test from a Federated client as well as the PSTN. I’ve seen some firewalls prevent a Federated caller from getting to a voicemail from a Queue timeout, but PSTN callers work just fine.

Enable Agent Anonymity is our last option. As the italic text from Microsoft indicates, this does limit some functionality. What it does do, is allow a user to place a call as the Workflow, so that their personal details are not revealed. This is great for helpdesk scenarios, where you don’t want people finding out how to contact your help desk staff individually and directly.

Gotcha! If a user is home on one pool, and a Response Group is on another, the Anonymity function is not available. The Skype for Business Windows client is the only client that I’m aware of that can do Anonymous calls – no phones currently support this function.

The limitations that Microsoft is referring to are minor for phone calls, and typically involve other modalities. For example, you can’t start an anonymous call with IM or video, you have to start with voice and then add the other modalities. If your goal was to have an IM session, it seems like overkill to have to phone the other person before you can flip IM on… Anonymous calls do not support conferencing, screensharing, file transfer, whiteboards, and recording.

Step 2: Select a Language

Use the drop-down to indicate what language you want the Response Group service to use for speech recognition and text-to-speech.

Step 3: Configure a Welcome Message


You can choose to play a welcome message to callers, either text-to-speech or something you record. Text-to-speech is great for testing, but not very professional sounding. You can use Audacity or the Windows sound recorder to record a WAV or WMA format greeting, and upload it here. Greetings that you’ve uploaded remain available. You can record all of your greetings at one time, upload them, and then select them as you need them. I’ve seen “closed unexpectedly due to weather” or special holiday greetings used.

Greig has a comprehensive post on audio formats on his blog. I either remember that he’s done this work and refer to it, or I find it in the top results when I do a search.

Step 4: Specify Your Business Hours

This section lets you configure your timezone and business hours, and set actions for when you are outside of your business hours.


You can define preset schedules via Powershell and select them here, or you can select “use a custom schedule” and enter your hours in the table. Note that opening hours start at the beginning of the minute, and closing hours end at the end of the minute. When you see 00:00 to 23:59 as defaults, that’s a full 24 hour day. You have two open and close times available, which lets you close over lunch time (or nap time).

There options for you to play a “sorry, we’re closed” message, these are the same as the greeting.


Finally, there are options for how to handle the call after-hours, these are self-explanatory. If you’re going to disconnect the call, please be kind and tell the caller to call back later in the after-hours message.


Step 5: Specify Your Holidays

This option is similar to the after-hours configuration, but is for entire days versus hours or minutes. You configure “holiday sets” via Powershell, but please don’t do this unless you have an irrational love for PowerShell.  These two tools the Holiday Set Editor and Lync Tools will save your sanity.

Step 6: Configure a Queue

This is where you pick the Queue that you want this Workflow to deliver calls to. If your Queue isn’t here, you likely started creating or editing the Workflow before the Queue was in the Skype for Business database. You can pick another Queue, save the Workflow, then edit it again to pick the correct Queue. If you haven’t yet created a Queue, you’ll need to start your Workflow configuration again.

Step 7: Configure Music on Hold

Response Groups come with a default music on hold that will play when users are in the Queue. You can configure your own music, by uploading the file here. There are no options for having a voice pop in every few seconds to remind people about how important their call is. If you want to do this, you’ll need to splice together your messages and your music file. Audacity can handle this for you.

I’ve seen a couple of organizations who have a recording of ringback that they use as hold music. This is illegal in some jurisdictions, but it’s also pretty annoying as the caller has no idea that they’ve been Queued unless you have a greeting. Be nice, configure a greeting, and play the default music or another music file suitable for callers to your organization.

Up next: Response Group Timers and Group Routing Method

I’ve talked a bit already about the two timers in Queues and Groups, as well as the Group Routing Method. I feel that these items need at least one post of their own to get a good feel of how they work together, so that will be covered more in an upcoming post.

Main Number Handling – Response Groups Pt 3 – Workflow Basics

We’ve covered Response Group Queues and Groups in previous posts, and we’re on the final component: The Response Group Workflow. Workflows aren’t as magical as Queues, but they are chock full of configuration options. Let’s jump in a have a look.

The first thing you’ll notice about RG Workflows is that they’re not edited in the Skype for Business Control Panel. Instead, when you click the “Create or edit a workflow” link


You’re first asked to Select a Service, which selects the pool to build the RG Workflow on. You need to build your Workflow, Queue, and Group on the same pool. In my case, my lab only has one pool so I select it and hit Okay.


And that opens a web browser and prompts for credentials. Enter your Skype for Business credentials that you used to logon on to the Control Panel, and you’ll be at the home page of the Response Group Configuration Tool

RGCT Homepage

You’ll see here that there are two options: Hunt Group and Interactive. The difference between the two is simple: Interactive allows you build one of those annoying call trees where you hit buttons to try and describe why you’re calling, and wind up in the wrong department anyway. Okay, I’m kidding – Interactive allows you to ask your caller a few questions in order to direct them to the appropriate Queue.

A great place to start is with the simpler Hunt Group configuration. Clicking Create (or, once you have a Workflow, clicking Edit) brings you to a configuration page with 7 Steps: Activate and Name the Workflow, Select a Language, Configure a Welcome Message, Specify Your Business Hours, Specify Your Holidays, Configure a Queue, and Configure Music on Hold.

In the remainder of this post, we’ll cover the essentials that you need to get a Workflow (and your Response Group) up and running. In the next post, I’ll swing back and cover these seven steps more fully.

Your first task is to provide a SIP address for the Workflow. Pick a name that’s descriptive and user friendly. Your users will likely see this name. You’ll also need to enter a Display Name, and your users will definitely see this name.


Surprise! You don’t need to configure a Telephone number. You don’t actually need to configure a phone number for anything in Skype for Business unless you want to communicate with the PSTN. With a phone number, you can still reach the Workflow from a Skype for Business client, including from a federated organization.

The very last requirement is to scroll down to step 6 and select the Queue that you want calls handled by.


Click Save, and now you have a functioning, though basic, Response Group!

Main Number Handling – Response Groups Pt 2 – All About Queues

This post is a part of my series on Main Number handling, and you may want to start with the introduction first.

Queues are where all of the magic happens in Response Groups.  As with Groups, you need a Name and can provide an optional description. Naming standards are your friend!


Next up, you can specify a list of Groups to receive calls from this Queue. If you specify multiple Groups, you can order them and the Queue mechanism will use the list, in order. How long the Queue spends in each Group is up to the timer you configured in the Group – more on timer interaction in a future post.


Next up we have Time-out and Overflow handling options. They’re disabled by default, which means that the Response Group will cycle through the Groups you’ve allocated indefinitely. That is probably less than ideal, so let’s dive into setting up Time-Out and Overflow options. Note that both have “overflow actions” – the options for these are the same, so I’ll discuss them last.


The first thing you can specify is the Time-Out period, in seconds. It defaults to 20, but you can set it anywhere from 10 to 65535 seconds. For those of you who aren’t good at division in your head, that’s about 18 hours.

For Overflow, you can set any number between 0 and 1000, which should cover just about any scenario you’d deploy on RGS. (The ability to specify 0 calls is a hidden gem, since it can provide an instant overflow. More on how to use this in a future post.) Overflow allows you to select the first or last call into the Queue to perform the Overflow action on. Generally I see this set to the “last call”, otherwise someone who’s been on hold in the queue the longest gets kicked to voicemail (or wherever) and the next person in the queue might wind up being connected with an agent moments later.

Call actions are pretty comprehensive. You can:

  • Disconnect the call (I’ve never seen anybody do this, but you can!)
  • Forward the call to a voicemail. Use the format ‘’. Note that Bob has to be enabled for SfB an EV for this to work.
  • Forward the call to a telephone number. Use the format ‘‘ where is your SIP domain. You would do this even if the phone number is external to your organization.
  • Forward the call to a SfB user. Use the format ‘’. This is the same format as the voicemail example, so make sure you’ve got the dropdown set to the right destination type.
  • Forward the call to a different Queue. This is nice when you already have a Queue setup. Let’s say you have a Queue for your Receptionists. reception gets overwhelmed with calls, you could have the Queue overflow to the Accounting Queue so that they can help out and answer some of the calls.



And that’s all for Queues. The next post will have an overview of Response Group Workflows, the third component of Response Groups, and the first part of the Response Group that handles your call.

Main Number Handling: Response Groups, pt 1 – Intro and Groups

This post is part of my series on Main Number handling. The most feature-rich call handling solution native to SfB is Response Groups. Response Groups, while nowhere near a full contact center, offer a great deal of flexibility and capability for an organization.

In the overview post, I provided a brief outline of Response Groups – they are an on-prem solution that offers hunt groups or IVR trees to assign calls to a Queue, and you can designate agents to handle the calls within that Queue. Response Groups are comprised of a Workflow, that receives and processes the call, passing it off to a Queue. Queues have Agents that are offered the call. To “Offer a call” is Microsoft’s terminology for the Response Group service ringing a particular Agent’s phone, so that they have the option to answer the call.

You might think at first that the Workflow would be the best place to begin any kind of deeper explanation. I’ve found that the opposite is true, so let’s being by taking a look at Groups, and since a picture is work a thousand words, here’s a screenshot of where to find the Response Group configuration page in the SfB Control Panel:


You can see the three components: Groups, Queues, and Workflows. The components are homed on a Front-End Pool, so you will need to select a pool each time you create or edit one of these objects.

Diving into Groups and selecting New, we see this page (it’s the same page for editing):


Note that while these components are homed on a particular pool, users who are Agents in a Group can belong to any on-prem pool in your organization.

The Name and Description fields are self-explanatory. Note the red star indicating that the name is a required field. You can edit the name after creation, but make things easy on yourself and come up with a naming scheme before you start.

Note that you’ll need names for Groups, Queues, and Workflows. If you call all three components “sales”, life can get confusing for you, especially if you find yourself in PowerShell. The easiest way to alleviate this is to add _Group or _Queue to the end of the name for these components. Users never see these names, so don’t worry about confusing them.

Great naming standards are always a win in my books, but do feel free to leave notes in the description field that provide more insight into the purpose of the group.

Participation Policy has two options, Formal and Informal:

  • Formal requires your agents to sign in and out of the Response Group. You do this via a web page and not just a button on a phone or in the client. I personally find this annoying. The lack of other Contact Center functionality in Response Groups makes Participation Policies somewhere i
  • Informal means there’s no login/logout required. You are essentially always logged in. This is the most common selection that I see.

Alert Time  is generally how long SfB will offer a call to the Agents before it’s passed back to the Queue. There are two timers in Response Groups, one at the Group level and one at the Queue level. Any decent conversation about these timers needs to include how the two timers work together for you (or against you, if you’re not careful) so more on timers in the upcoming post on Queues.

Routing Method is the pattern that the Response Group service user to select Agents to offer calls to. Your options are:

  • Longest Idle: The Agent who has been idle the longest, as long as their presence is Available or Inactive.
  • Parallel: The call is offered to all Agents whose presence is Available or Inactive.
  • Round Robin: The call is presented to each Agent based on the list of Agents, so long as they are Available or Inactive. The RG service keeps track of the last agent that was offered a call, and will start with the next agent for the next call. Over time, you will get a roughly equal distribution of calls, assuming your agents have similar presences statuses for similar amounts of time.
  • Serial: Similar to Round Robin, but follows the order of the agents as you have them in the Agent list, so long as that user is Available or Inactive. Unlike the Round Robin option, the RG service will start again at the top of the Agent list for the next call. This is a great way to prioritize your agents so that one person typically answers calls, but calls will immediately go to their backup(s) if they’re not available
  • Attendant: The RG service will offer the call to all agents, regardless of their presence (Save for DND and Offline). One key difference is that the calls will “stack up” in the Agent’s notification window, and they can cherry pick which call they answer. On the downside, agents will hear ringing and see toast for each call that is coming in. If you have a lot of calls stacking up, this gets really annoying. (Use Queue overflow settings to alleviate this)

Agents are last. We have a dropdown that allows you to build your own ordered list of agents, or select an existing AD distribution list. The distribution list can be a great option however there are a couple of gotchas:

  • The Response Group service is updated overnight through SfB maintenance processes. If you need to add an agent to a group faster, you can either fiddle with triggering updates manually or use the “customer group of agents” option instead.
  • The Response Group service can’t take advantage of nested groups. Only direct members of the group you select become agents.
  • Agents must be enabled for Enterprise Voice.

Gotchas to watch for when adding a user as an Agent to a Group in a different SfB Topology Site

  • An user in the same site as the pool hosting the Response Group will receive a banner on their client advising that they’ve been added to the Response Group as an Agent. A user outside of that site will not receive any notification that they’ve been added to a Group.
  • An Agent in one site cannot place calls on behalf of a response group in a different site.
  • When an agent hits their default logon/logout page via the client, it will only have Response Groups from their own site. They’ll need to manually bookmark the login/logout page for any other sites that host Response Groups that they are a member of.
  • You can leave a group without any agents defined, but you cannot use that group for anything. (Stay with me here, this applies in a more advanced call handling scenarios that I’ll get to later).

And that’s it for Groups. Next up will be a post on Queues, where all of the interesting stuff happens.



Main Number Handling: Solution Overview

In the first post in this series, I provided some basic guidance on how to plan for you main number scenarios. In this post, I’ll outline each of the technical options that you can use to address you main number requirements.

Your call handling functions include:

SfB Response Group Hunt Groups

Response Groups are a hunt group/IVR solution built into SfB on-prem. Response Groups have three components: groups, which are your users who will handle calls, queues that present the calls to groups, and a workflow that will play a greeting and send the call to a queue.

Workflows have options for business hours, holidays, music on hold, recorded or text-to-speech greetings. A call can be distributed to a queue, or based on work hours and holidays it can be disconnected (really? Who would ever do that?) or forwarded elsewhere.

Response Groups have some other features like Agent Anonymity so that you don’t reveal the name, SIP address, or number of the agent receiving or placing a call. A Response Group can be Formal or Informal. With Formal Response Groups, Agents must log in and out of the Response Group, whereas with informal Response Groups they’re always “logged in”.

You can also scope a Response Group to a manager, so that you can easily delegate all the fiddly settings like greetings and hours and group membership to an administrator.

Once the call is in a queue, there are a variety of timeout and overflow options. Within Groups, you can set the method used to pick which agent(s) is offered the call, and how long the call will ring before it’s sent back up to the queue for alternate handling.

SfB Response Group IVR

The Response Group type I described above is a Hunt Group, where an incoming call has only one destination queue. An IVR Response Group allows you to provide options to the caller, and route their call to a different queue based on their responses. This can be via keypress or speech recognition. You can also record that ubiquitous “Please listen carefully as our menu options have changed” greeting that everybody seems to have, regardless of how old their IVR structure is.

Response Groups are pretty versatile (and free) and are commonly used because of this. However, they’re not without their limitations. I’ll explore these more in a future post.

Exchange Auto-Attendants

Exchange Auto-Attendants aren’t an SfB feature, they’re a component of Exchange Unified Messaging. They’re available online or on-prem, and are fairly simple to configure. When an Auto Attendant is called, a greeting is played and the call can do things like an address book looking, enter an extension, or similar to the IVR Response Group, press keys or use voice recognition to play messages or reach destinations. You also get business hours and holidays, and can change behavior based on these.

Unlike Response Groups, there are no queues or groups in Auto Attendants, however the Auto Attendant doesn’t care what’s at the number that you forward a call too, so you could forward a call from an AutoAttendant to another AA, Response Group, user, or your annoying coworker’s mobile.

SfB Standalone/Phantom “user” or Common Area Phone

You could also chose to have a main number ring a regular phone or SfB client, typically one that isn’t assigned to a person. I’ve seen these called “Standalone” phones or “Phantom users”. This solution is common when your call volume is low, or when you have a rotation of people through a reception desk. The users can logon to the PC as themselves, and would have a phone on the desk for the main number. I have also seen organization load an Attendant console on a small form factor PC with a touch screen, and have this sit on the desk beside the regular office PC.

You can use a standard SfB user for this, or a Common Area Phone. Using a SfB user consumes a license, where a CAP does not. However, CAPs are not yet available in SfB Online, and cannot offer voicemail.

SfB Team Ring or Delegation

When a standalone phone or phantom user proves too limiting, such as when there isn’t a reception desk or you need a ring a group of people, you can use Team Ring or Delegation.

Team Ring allows one user – your phantom user – to have their calls ring on their teammates SfB clients or phones after some delay (0-15 seconds). They’ll get a unique ring/toast so they can identify that the call isn’t to their individual number.

Team Ring and Delegation are very similar, with one key difference. With Team Ring, you can only answer calls on behalf of the phantom user. With Delegation, you can receive and place calls on behalf of the phantom user.

This is a popular, free (other than the SfB license for the phantom user), self-serve option, but it’s not a scalable solution.

SfB Simultaneous Ring

A similar option to Team Ring is to use the Simultaneous Ring feature. However, Simring only allows you to assign one destination user or phone number, so you can’t alert multiple people for an incoming call. This option is useful for a single user or phantom user, when the person who would normally answer the call is away from their desk – an admin person making some photocopies, or a security officer doing a patrol. They can setup simring to a mobile or cordless phone, and wander away from their desk while being able to answer the phone. Note that options for call transfers are limited in this scenario.

They could also simring a coworker who is staying at their desk, who would have the usual SfB call transfer options.

Call Pickup

Call pickup is a relatively new option in the SfB world. The idea is that when your phone is ringing, your coworkers can enter a code on their phone to pickup your call. This was a popular function in traditional PBX environments that didn’t have things like delegation or team ring. Call pickup is a bit of a pain to administer. Frankly, I get the feeling that this feature was added to SfB to satisfy a large customer, or to gain another point or two when organizations are scoring RFP responses.

Shared Line Appearance

A Shared Line Appearance is another legacy PBX features that has crept into the SfB world, at least partially. The idea here is that you would have a button (or two or three) on your phone that would be a duplicate of the line on another phone. Think of an admin who can have buttons on their phone for the main number, the bosses’ number, and maybe a coworker. They can hit this button to answer the other line(s) when they ring. In most legacy PBXs, the button also offered a busy light, and could either act as a speed dial to call that person, or a “place call on behalf of” function. In SfB, this functionality is limited at present to just Polycom VVX phones, it’s not available on other phones or the SfB clients. The button also doesn’t do anything other than answer the call.

I’ve seen limited uptake of this feature, and again I suspect it’s to provide some level of comfort to a large SfB customer or for RFP scoring. There are better, less limited ways to handle most scenarios where SLA is mentioned.

Coming soon to the SfB offerings are Cloud PBX Organization Auto Attendant and Cloud PBX Call Queues. These are meant to offer functionality similar to SfB Response Groups in Online deployments, and to eliminate the need for the Exchange UM role for Auto Attendant functionality. These features are currently in preview, and I’m hopeful that they’ll be released soon so that I can provide more concrete details.

AudioCodes Auto Attendant

AudioCodes offers an application that they call AutoAttendant, though it’s more like the Response Group than Exchange Auto Auto attendant. There are no directory lookups, but there are decent options for queueing and IVR handling of calls.

Full-blown Contact Center

If these solutions don’t meet your requirement, you may need to look at a full blown contact center solution like Computer Talk ICE, Clarify Connect, or Enghouse’s offerings. This isn’t as daunting of a concept as it once was. You no longer need to deploy one or more servers and installing software. Most call centre software is now available in the cloud as a service, with functionality and pricing on a per-user, per-month basis.

Next up…

In the next several posts, I’ll provide more in-depth details on each of the items above. If I’ve missed your favorite main number handling option, hit me up in the comments!

Main Number Handling

A topic in every SfB deployment I’m involved in is main number handling, and rightly so. Callers to your organization deserve a first class experience, and that experience needs to also meet your organizations objectives. For example, do you want a caller to first reach a live receptionist and only overflow to an auto attendant, or are your calls best handled by an automated system?

Over the next several posts, I’ll review the organization characteristics and requirements for main numbers, and the features in SfB for main number handling. I’ll then dive deeper into each feature to show how they work and what the benefits and drawbacks of each may be. I’ll then outline how the features can “snap together” to provide a more detailed solution, and give some real-world examples that I’ve seen.

30,000 Feet

A main number is any phone number that reaches your organization, but isn’t assigned to any one particular person or phone. A regular user, Common Area Phone, subscriber access, and conference room phone aren’t main numbers. Main numbers are things like reception, help desks or support lines, team phone numbers, or even things like enterphones/door buzzers.

The beginning is a very good place to start

Jumping in to the technical features of SfB is a terrible place to start this process. Your technology products need to address your business issues, so let’s start with business processes and people.

If you’re migration to SfB from another system

A migration means that you’re already handling your main numbers in some fashion. Document how the number is currently being handled. Review what you’ve documented with the users that are involved with handling calls to the number. This includes anyone who might answer the phone, but also those who receive calls from an Auto-Attendant, for example. Your goal here is ensure that you have accurately and completely captured how things are working today (and not necessarily how they’ll work in SfB)

  • If you’ve identified phone numbers, voicemail boxes, departments, recordings or greetings that you don’t know anything about, you will need to ask around. Call those unknown numbers, leave voicemails in those odd looking voice mailboxes and ask people to call you back. I’ve seen one organization that just couldn’t track these down set up bounty-hunter prizes for staff members who solved the mystery of the unknown number. (Some people will do anything for a Starbucks gift card!)
  • During this process, be sure to ask stakeholders about any toll-free numbers that might be involved. Typically, a toll-free number is delivered to a regular number at your organization. Make sure you don’t disconnect the regular number, or port it away to a different carrier without also bringing the toll-free number.

Next, review what you’ve discovered and documented. Your current system might be decades old, and may have grown organically and uncontrollably since then. Ask those involved if they like how it functions, or if they’d like to see any changes made. Draw up a new plan based on their input, as if you were deploying a new number – which brings us to the next section…

If you’re deploying a new main number

A net-new number can be easier or more difficult that a migration. It can be easier because there isn’t any legacy baggage of “we’ve always done it this way”. It can be more difficult because sometime people don’t know enough to provide useful input.

Meet with those involved in handling calls to the main number, or receiving calls from it. Establish what their requirements are, and how they would like to see the system work. Again, stay away from technical features – focus on what people want and what the business needs. Draw up the new plan, and review it with those involved.

Designing and Documenting

Whether you’re migrating or deploying net-new, don’t aim for one rigid plan that you’re now going to try to implement in SfB. Instead, capture ideas and concepts like “if reception doesn’t answer within a couple of rings they might be busy, so also ring accounting, then if nobody answers after 30 seconds, go to voicemail”. Whiteboards, post-it notes, and the Office Lens app on your smartphone are your friends here.

You may wind up with multiple plans or ideas for handling some numbers. That’s fine, and maybe even useful as you being to map those requirements to features available.

Mapping Requirements to Technical Features

Now that you have a handle on your current deployment and what the desired functionality is, you can being to examine the technical options for implementing that functionality. As you progress, you may need to rework your desired functionality because of technical limitations, or new ideas that arise when you map your desired functionality to the technical options available. If you have multiple possible plans or ideas for a number,

In the next post, I’ll jump into an overview of the (many!) options within SfB. Stay tuned!

Patching Without an Internet Connection

In some organizations, allowing servers to have direct access to the Internet isn’t permitted. Or, it could be you have an isolated lab and need to patch your machines. WSUS is great, but not always possible to implement.

There are a couple of utilities available that help with this. The first is quite excellent,

The second one I haven’t personally used

Either of these tools should get you patched, without needing to worry about Internet connectivity from your machines.